Teratoma diagnosis sympotms and Tratments

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Teratoma is a tumour that originates during the intrauterine formation of organs and tissues, while the distinctive feature is the presence in its structure of rudiments of embryonic tissues.

teratoma

In translation from Greek, “teratos” is a “monster”, which reflects the structure of the neoplasm. The internal structure of the tumor is represented by cells and tissues that are not peculiar to the localization of the formation, so, in the morphological study of the removed teratoma, hair, fragments of bone tissue, pieces of muscle fibers and connective tissue, less often the eyes, teeth, part of the limb can found inside.

Teratomas are in most cases benign, but there are also malignant tumours. Also, mature and immature teratomas are distinguished, which is determined by the differentiation of cells and tissues that make up a tumour. In its structure, the neoplasm can be cystic and solid.

The clinical course of the teratoma depends on the location of a tumour. In adults, you can most often encounter ovarian and testicular teratoma, and in children, the tumour is detected immediately after birth in the form of the lumbosacral formation.

Ovarian Teratoma

 

In most cases, ovarian ternate is detected with occasional ultrasound examination and is detected in 10-20% of cases of all tumour-like formations of the ovaries. The size of this tumour varies from a few cms to 10-15 cm, as a rule, it is single-chambered and one-sided, usually found in women of reproductive age. The main clinical signs of ovarian teratoma, like any other cyst, are a feeling of heaviness and pain in the lower abdomen, dysuric phenomena. The general condition is usually not disturbed, in the peripheral blood there is no pronounced change. Diagnosis of this type of a tumour is performed with the gynaecological examination, based on ultrasound, CT, MRI of pelvic organs. Treatment of teratomas ovary is carried out under conditions of the gynaecological department with the removal of a tumour and its subsequent histological examination. Usually, the ovarian teratoma is a benign tumour, so the prognosis for life is favourable.

Teratoma of the testicle in men is a tumour with high malignant potential, mainly found at the age of 15-20 years and is asymptomatic, in some cases may disturb the pain and discomfort in the testicle. A definite help in the diagnosis of teratoma is the detection of an elevated concentration of chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein. Treatment of this type of a tumour involves its surgical removal, followed by radiation and chemotherapy treatment.

The sacrococcygeal teratoma of a newborn can be detected during the intrauterine period of development or immediately after birth. Reaching a large size, the tumour can interfere with the normal course of the birth act, causes the child to squeeze and deform the internal organs, heart failure and often lethal outcome.

Therapeutic nourishment for oncological diseases

The body needs protein and energy

During illness the body needs an increased amount of protein and energy – a diet for oncology should be developed with this account. However, the amount of protein consumed must be increased already at the very beginning of treatment, and even better – before it starts. Also, care should be taken to ensure that the patient receives the necessary amount of physical exertion, including special exercises.

Just one meal is not enough

It happens that with oncology, it is difficult to replenish the deficiency of proteins and energy in the body with the help of ordinary food. In this case, the diet should be supplemented with high-protein therapeutic nutrition. Nutridrinck Protein 125 ml, ready-to-eat product, with a small volume contains the amount of protein necessary for oncological patients – 125 ml of the product provides 18 g of easily digestible protein.

Nutridrinck Protein 125 ml has been developed as the basis for treatment and rehabilitation for patients with cancer, including those who have impaired chewing and swallowing processes. In three bottles Nutridrinck Protein 125 ml contains 60% of the daily protein norm *: this amount of protein is contained in a portion of meat, three eggs and two glasses of milk.

Following the recommendations of the European Association for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN), therapeutic nutrition should be included in the diet before chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as in between their cycles. Medical nutrition will be useful both in preparation for the operation, and recovery after it. Preparation should be started at least 14 days before the surgery, taking three bottles a day, and recovery from the surgery should be carried out the same course, three bottles per day, for at least 14 days until complete recovery.

Nutridrinck Protein 125 ml is a health food №1 on the recommendation of oncologists.

* For a patient weighing 60 kg with a daily protein requirement of 1.5 g per kg of body weight.

Just about cancer: The causes and mechanisms of tumor development

Daily in the body of each of us, tumor cells are formed. They differ from ordinary ones not only in shape and size but also in the ability of uncontrolled division and penetration into other tissues. Cells become malignant due to breakdowns or mutations in their DNA. Some genetic defects or infections may increase the risk of developing cancer. Also, the frequency of mutations and the formation of cancer cells are affected by carcinogenic factors: air pollution, tobacco tar, surrogates of alcohol, consumption of fatty and fried foods, violation of sex hormone levels, obesity and much more.

Causes and types  of Teratoma

The cause of development of the terat is the chromosomal abnormality of its cells. According to the type of this anomaly, “mature” and “immature” teratomas are distinguished. The difference between them lies in the degree of differentiation of the tissues that make up the tumor: if the tumor includes elements normal to the adult human tissue (muscle, nervous, fat, connective), then talk about a mature teratoma, if one determines the type of tissue in the tumor it is an immature teratoma.

Mature teratoma

Mature and immature teratomas, in addition to appearance and chromosome set, may have different growth characteristics. Thus, mature female ovarian teratomas in women have a benign course, while testicles of men are malignant. Malignant teratoma of a tumour is manifested in a more aggressive growth of the tumour with organ destruction, the development of bleeding and the release of hormones and testicular antigens into the blood, which can lead to death for the patient.

immature teratoma

By structure, teratomas are also divided into dense and cystic-teratomas. The latter, along with the rudiments of tissues, contain liquid masses.

Learn teratoma and simple and difficult

The manifestations of teratomas depend on the place of origin of the tumour and the time of its appearance in human embryogenesis. The earlier in the life of the embryo the tumour is laid, the more the normal development of the child will be disrupted. The signs of a tumour in these cases are evident at birth in the form of defects in the skeleton and soft tissues.

In adults, teratomas can be mute for a long time, and the onset of their manifestations is usually associate with the symptoms of compression or displacement of the organ from which the teratoma grows. For example, in ovarian teratomas, torsion of the ovaries can occur, which leads to pain in the pelvis. With teratoma of the lungs and mediastinum, symptoms of dyspnoea and pain behind the sternum will manifest, and a testicular tumour – the appearance of volumetric education in the scrotum.

Teratoma: we will delete

The treatment of teratoma is only surgical. Usually, produce a testicle or ovary.

 

Thus, the determination of these substances makes it possible to assess the rate of tumour growth, the presence of metastasis and the effectiveness of the treatment.

Based on the article “Teratoma. A tumour growing out of embryonic cells. ”

Teratoma: treatment after removal

  • Chemotherapy is the only way to treat malignant teratomas
  • Effects of teratoma treatment
  • What do the doctor’s say

Chemotherapy is the only way to treat malignant teratomas

The teratoma treatment is always prompt. A tumour is excised as sparingly as possible for the organ in which it was formed. In the case of tumour removal and normal test and test results (which is usually the case if the teratoma is mature, i.e., benign), the doctor may recommend stopping further treatment, short of regular follow-up to assess the patient’s condition and repeat some studies by scanning.

Here is the treatment schedule of teratoma

teratoma: treatment

  • Treatment with teratoma in case of their germination in other areas (immature, malignant teratoma) is reduced almost exclusively to chemotherapy. Such teratomas are almost insensitive to radiation therapy and other methods of action.
  • The use of chemotherapy led to an improvement in the outcome of treatment in most patients, as treatment methods have become more effective, and side effects can be better controlled. The choice of the form of treatment and chemotherapeutic methods depends on the location (location) of the tumour and its size, the type of a tumour when examined under a microscope.
  • Combinations of several highly active drugs may be used, but cisplatin is considered to be the most valuable. By the drop method, it is slowly injected into the vein for several hours. The main side effect is nausea, which appears almost inevitable, but thanks to the new anti-emetic drugs, vomiting now causes much less anxiety.
  • In all cases, hair loss occurs, which usually becomes noticeable after about three weeks, and although patients may experience complete head hair loss, in other places hair often falls much less. Fortunately, this phenomenon is only temporary, and approximately two months after the completion of chemotherapy, hair growth resumes.
  • The doctor necessarily monitors the levels of blood cells, because as a result of the treatment they usually decrease, but spontaneously recover even before the beginning of the next cycle. At certain intervals in the procedure, the physician should also evaluate the kidney function.
  • The duration of the planned treatment is usually not less than 12 weeks. If the signs of a tumour were detected during the initial CT scan (computed tomography), then it will be necessary to repeat it to make sure there is no remaining lesion. Unfortunately, it often happens that in some affected areas there is not enough change for the better.
  • If the scan is still visible some education, it is most likely a combination of scar tissue with healthy cells from various tissues – the so-called benign teratoma. And since such formations can continue to grow and reach large sizes, it is advisable to ask the surgeon to remove them, which will also allow the pathologist to be convinced using microscopic examination in the absence of a malignant tumour.

Effects of teratoma treatment

  • One of the problems that cause the most significant concern for people who have completed treatment with genitourinary and gradually returning to healthy life is the possibility of having children and normal sex life.
  • Indeed, after treatment with teratomas, there is often a temporary loss of sexual desire, but it can be observed in any disabling disease. Do not get discouraged – as soon as the illness passes, the sexual function is restored completely. It also applies to the period of chemotherapy.
  • Such a deviation, as a rule, is short-lived, nevertheless, if it disturbs one of the partners, do not hesitate to consult a doctor. It is usually only in sporadic cases that hormone replacement therapy is required. Whatever the circumstances, you will not lose anything by discussing this problem with a doctor who, of course, have come across it in the past. Fertility can be a more serious problem, as men often experience a decline. Fortunately,
  • One way to overcome the possible risk due to infertility chemotherapy is to create a sperm bank. Those who are worried about fertility, of course, should check the sperm after a full recovery.
  • A small number of patients annually discover teratomas in the testicles that emanate from other parts of the body. Most often this is part of the chest, called mediastinum. It is here between the lungs that the heart and the main blood vessels are located.
  • In a minority of such patients, an ultrasound examination can detect a small tumour in this area, from which the teratoma is supposed to metastasize to the organs of the chest. In such cases, the affected testicle is usually removed.

What do the doctor’s say

The majority of patients with teratomas can be treated with chemotherapeutic methods even after the germination of cancer cells into other organs. Only in isolated cases, the disease does not respond to treatment.

But in the presence of teratomas, which are primarily found in the chest, the prognosis is less favourable than in the case of their detection directly in the testicles.

Based on the article “Cancer of the urethra, penis, testicle”.

About “maturity” with teratoma

  • All about mature teratoma
  • Than unripe teratomas are dangerous

By type of cell anomaly, “mature” and “immature” teratomas are distinguished. The degree of “maturity” with teratoma depends on the tissues that make up the tumor: if the tumor includes elements normal to the adult human tissue (muscle, nervous, fat, connective), then talk about a mature teratoma (dermoid cyst), if you determine the type of tissue in the tumor It is impossible, then we are talking about immature teratoma (teratoblastoma). Consider this difference in the example of teratoma of the ovaries (this is the most common type of teratoma).

All about mature teratoma

teratoma

Mature teratoma is divided into a solid (without cysts) and cystic (dermoid cyst). Isolate and monodermal teratomas – the ovarian and ovarian carcinoids, their structure is identical to the usual tissue of the thyroid gland and intestinal carcinoids.

Mature cystic teratoma is one of the most common tumours in childhood and adolescence; a tumour can occur even in newborns. Mature teratoma occurs in the reproductive age, in the postmenopausal period (as a random finding).

  1. Mature teratoma consists of well-differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic leaflets with the predominance of ectodermal elements. This defines the term “dermoid cyst”. A tumour is a single-cell cyst (a multi-chambered structure is rarely observed), always benign and only occasionally shows signs of malignancy (a tendency to malignancy). The structure of dermoid cysts includes the so-called dermoid tubercle.
  2. The capsule of the dermoid cyst is dense, fibrous, of various thickness, the surface is smooth, shiny. Teratoma on a cut resembles a sack containing a thick mass consisting of fat and hair, and often well-formed teeth. The inner surface of the wall is lined with a cylindrical or cubic epithelium. When microscopic examination, tissues of ectoderm origin are determined – skin, elements of neural tissue – glia, neurocytes, ganglia. Mesodermal derivatives are represented by bone, cartilaginous, smooth muscle, fibrous and fatty tissue.
  3. Derived endoderms are less common and usually include bronchial and gastrointestinal epithelium, the tissue of the thyroid and salivary glands. The object of a particularly careful histological examination should be a dermoid tubercle to exclude malignancy.
  4. Symptoms of dermoid cysts differ little from the symptoms of benign ovarian tumours. The dermoid cyst does not have hormonal activity; it rarely causes complaints. Pain syndrome is very rare. The general condition of a woman, as a rule, does not suffer. Sometimes there is a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen. If there is a twisting of the foot of the dermoid cyst, the symptomatology of the “acute abdomen” arises, which requires emergency surgery.
  5. The dermoid cyst is often combined with other tumours and tumour-like formations of the ovaries. It is extremely rare when a mature teratoma appears malignant storing their natural functions. That is why in modern oncology, special attention is paid to immunomodulators, drugs intended to restore the malfunction of immunity.
  6. Separately. Thus, we can safely say that with the advent of immunomodulators in modern pharmaceuticals with anti-carcinogenic properties acting at the cellular level without side effects, the treatment of oncological diseases is reaching a whole new level. The process, mainly squamous cell carcinoma.
  7. Diagnosis with mature teratoma is established based on the course of the disease, two-hand gynaecological examination, ultrasound (ultrasound) with CDC (colour Doppler mapping), laparoscopy.
  8. With gynaecological examination, the tumour is located mainly anterior to the uterus, round in shape, with a smooth surface, has a long leg, a mobile, painless, dense consistency. The diameter of the mature teratoma is from 5 to 15 cm. A
  9. dermoid cyst with the inclusion of bone tissue is an only tumour that can be determined on a survey X-ray of the abdominal cavity.
  10. Echography helps to clarify the diagnosis of mature teratomas.
  11. Mature teratomas have, as a rule, a clear outline. They may have an atypical internal structure. Inside a tumour and behind it are viewed multiple small inclusions – the “tail of a comet.”Perhaps a cystic-solid structure with teratoma with a dense component, round or oval, with even contours. Such a variety of internal structure of a tumour often creates difficulties in the proper diagnosis and evaluation of its condition.
  12. As an additional method in the diagnosis of mature teratomas after the application of ultrasound, CT (computed tomography) can be used.
  13. The dermoid cyst has an uneven yellowish-whitish colour and a dense consistency. Prominent in the diagnosis of mature teratomas is their location in the anterior vault, in contrast to tumours of other species, usually located in utero-rectum space. The leg of the dermoid cyst is usually long, thin, with small haemorrhages on the capsule.
  14. Treatment of mature teratomas is only surgical. Volume and access of surgical intervention depend on the size of education, the age of the patient and the concomitant genital pathology. In young women and girls, if possible, limited to partial ovarian removal within the healthy tissue (cystectomy).
  15. It is preferable to use laparoscopic access using an evacuation bag. In patients of older age, a super-vaginal amputation of the mature teratoma is used. Sometimes, if necessary, remove the appendages of the uterus from the affected side, if the uterus is not changed. The prognosis in the treatment of mature teratomas, as a rule, is always favourable.

Than unripe teratomas are dangerous

Immature teratoma (teratoblastoma) refers to malignant neoplasms of the ovary. Immature teratoma occurs, fortunately, much less often than mature. A tumour tends to grow rapidly and can reach considerable dimensions. At a microscopic examination, a combination of the derivatives of all three embryonic layers is determined. The surface of immature teratomas is usually variegated, from pale grey to dark brown. When examining the bone, cartilage, hair, the tumour often contains fat masses.

The immature teratoma is usually located on the side of the uterus, one-sided, almost always irregular in shape, unevenly soft, sometimes dense in consistency, depending on the predominant type of tissue, large, with a bumpy surface, sedentary, sensitive on palpation. When the capsule is germinated, the tumour is implanted (implanted) in the peritoneum, gives metastases to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lungs, liver, brain. Metastases of immature teratoma, like an underlying tumour, usually consist of various tissue elements with the most immature structures.

Patients with immature teratoma usually complain of pain in the lower abdomen, general weakness, lethargy, fatigue, decreased ability to work. The menstrual function is often not disrupted. In the blood, there are changes inherent in malignant tumours. With rapid growth, symptoms due to intoxication, disintegration and metastasis of the tumour are masked under general somatic disease. It often leads to inadequate (incorrect) treatment. By the time of recognition in such cases, the tumour is already running.

The use of ultrasound with CDC (colour Doppler mapping) helps to clarify the diagnosis of immature teratomas. Echography, as a rule, shows a mixed, cystic-solid structure of an immature teratoma with uneven fuzzy contours.

Like all malignant variants of tumours, immature teratoma has a chaotic internal structure with pronounced neovascularization (pathological growth of new vessels).

Treatment of immature teratomas is surgical. Applied supravaginal amputation of the uterus with appendages and removal of the gland. Immature teratomas are not sensitive to radiation therapy, but sometimes they can respond to combined chemotherapy. The prognosis of treatment with immature teratomas is unfavourable.”

Teratoma is here, a teratoma is there or where teratomas “live.”

  • What is teratoma
  • The “habitats” of teratoma and their features
  • Teratoblastoma is an evil sister of teratoma

What is teratoma

Teratomas are extensively growing tumours, often reaching a large size, consisting of a variety of tissue structures – the derivatives of all three embryonic sheets with or without the elements of extraembryonic tissues (trophoblast elements, i.e., the outer layer of cells).

Teratomas have a certain, typical localization (placement): ovaries and testes, sacrococcygeal region, mediastinum, retroperitoneal space, pharynx, the base of the skull. In adults, teratomas of the gonads and mediastinum most often occur. The most frequent localization of teratomas in children is the sacrococcygeal region.

The “habitats” of teratoma and their features

The sacrococcygeal teratoma, as a rule, is found from birth, is also found in fetuses, more often in girls. Most of the teratoma this localization is benign. They sometimes reach a very large size and then complicate the course of childbirth. Can fill the cavity of the small pelvis without damaging the pelvic bone. A tumour consists of structures resembling organs, and a variety of tissues, such as intestine loops, liver tissue, rudiments (rudiments) of limbs, etc. Less common are malignant teratomas (thermoblastomas) when along with mature tissues, carcinoma-like solid or papillary structures predominate. Papillary growths are derived from extraembryonic tissues (trophoblast).

Of the ovarian teratomas in children, compared with an adult, malignant teratoblastomas are more common than benign dermoid cysts. They have the character of multi-chamber cysts, consisting of mature tissues, between which there is fields of solid growths, embryonic and extraembryonic nature. Such teratoblastomas can give metastases to the lungs. In children, there may be cases of mature teratomas, consisting of tissues, which, in the case of surgical removal, give, however, seeding on the peritoneum.

Teratoma testes are more common in children younger than two years, often found from birth. Testicular tetracycles, in contrast to ovarian teratomas, are more likely to be benign in children. In adults, on the contrary, they are more often malignant. Malignant teratomas often consist of derivatives of epithelial tissue – flat keratinizing epithelium, mucous glands, epithelial tissue.

In most cases, retroperitoneal and mesenteric teratomas appear from birth or at the age of 2-3 years. They reach a large size, are more common in girls. They are located closer to the diaphragm than to the pelvic area, usually benign, very rarely malignant.

Large polycystic and solid teratomas with the presence of immature tissues are always malignant.

Teratoma pharynx (congenital pharyngeal polyps) – polypoid formations that occur in fetuses and newborns. Located in the upper dome of the pharynx, where they grow in the form of polypoid growths, one part of which is covered by the mucous membrane, the other – the skin. Sometimes reach a considerable size and then complicate childbirth. As a rule, they consist of mature tissues and rudimentary (rudimentary) organs. Sometimes there are forms corresponding to a defective second twin, reaching the size of the child’s head; the tumour is attached to the area of the jaws or throat (the so-called designates). Malignant teratomas of this area are rare.

Intracranial teratomas are in some cases malignant, contain growing embryonic tissues. In rare cases, such teratomas give metastases to the lungs; they are located in the base of the skull. Meet these teratomas more often in fetuses and newborns. Boys often localize near the pineal gland and may be accompanied by endocrine disorders in the form of premature puberty.

Teratoblastoma is an evil sister of teratoma

Teratoblastoma is a malignant teratoma analogue; it always has fields of immature embryonic or more often extraembryonic tissue, which can be combined with elements of mature tissues. Teratoblastoma, as a rule, grows rapidly and metastasise. In metastases, a combination of mature and immature tissues is detected, as in the primary node. Less common teratoblastomas, consisting only of immature, usually extraembryonic tissues.

Based on the article by A.I. Strukov. and Serov V.V. “Teratomas and teratoblastomas.”

Teratoma: children are in the spotlight

  • Children’s age – not a hindrance for teratoma
  • Recognize the Cerato: what you need to pay attention to
  • Modern methods of diagnosis or teratoma “under a microscope.”
  • Get rid of teratoma: treatment methods

Children’s age – not a hindrance for teratoma

Teratomas are found mainly in children of the first years of life, less often – in adolescence and makeup about 6% among tumours of childhood.

In newborns and infants with tumorous diseases, teratomas are found in 22-25% of cases.

The places of placement of teratom in children differ in variety: sacrococcygeal region – 38%, ovaries – 31%, retroperitoneal space – 12%, testicles – 6%, mediastinum – 4%, others – 9%.

The origin of the teratoma to the end has not been studied to the end. Some of them are defects in the development of the tissues of the embryo; others are the result of the incorrect development of one of the embryos of the twins, welded together.

In newborns, teratomas are usually built from immature tissues and are difficult to distinguish from malignant tumours. In children aged four months to 5 years, teratomas are malignant in 50-60% of cases.

Recognize the Cerato: what you need to pay attention to

The manifestations of teratomas are diverse and largely determined by the location of a tumour. A common feature of teratomas in children is, as a rule, benign course and a rare metastasis (spread) to nearby lymph nodes, lungs, liver or bones.

With an external location of the teratoma in the sacrococcygeal region, it is easily detected at birth, since it is located on the buttock or along the medial sacrococcygeal line.

With the external-internal arrangement of the teratoma, in addition to a protruding tumour, there is another part of it, located between the sacrum and rectum.

With the growth of the internal part of the teratoma, there are symptoms of a disorder of the pelvic organs in the form of impaired urination, constipation or incontinence of faeces. Such a teratoma is often soldered to the coccyx, grows outward and can be accompanied by skin decay, infection and bleeding.

Teratoma to the touch can be smooth or bumpy (with malignant degeneration), the skin above it – unchanged or necrotic (necrotic) with large tumour sizes. The consistency of a tumour with benign teratoma is usually milder than with malignant. The skin temperature over the malignant teratoma is usually increased, and the vascular pattern is well marked. Unlike benign teratomas, malignant tumour species rarely reach large sizes.

In benign teratomas, the overall condition of the child suffers little if a tumour does not squeeze the surrounding organs and tissues. In children with malignant tumours, local symptoms are always expressed. Also, there is a paleness of skin, weight loss, lag in physical development, increased temperature, increased ESR (sedimentation rate of erythrocytes). Children are often restless, which is associated with pain, and which are indicated by the eldest of them.

Teratoma of the ovaries for a long time is slightly asymptomatic. The first sign of the disease is usually an increase in the size of the stomach. Sometimes children complain of pain in the lower abdomen. Torsion of the legs of teratoma of the ovary can cause, in addition to pain, vomiting and tension of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall (the so-called “acute abdomen” syndrome).

With retroperitoneal teratomas, symptoms appear due to compression of surrounding organs and tissues: periodic pain, vasodilation on the anterior abdominal wall, and the presence of a tumour when the stomach is felt.

Patients with teratomas of external localization (neck, testicle, etc.) have, as a rule, only local symptoms.

Modern methods of diagnosis or teratoma “under a microscope.”

Methods for diagnosing teratomas in children are different and depend on the location (location) of a tumour. The presence of a tumour in the sacrococcygeal region gives the right to presume teratoma in the child.

When radiographing the chest, metastatic pulmonary tissue damage can be detected.

Radiography of the spine can be distinguished from teratoma from the developmental defect of the sacral vertebrae leading to a cerebrospinal hernia.

When X-ray studies of teratomas, various inclusions can be found in it.

Ultrasound (ultrasound), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) make it possible to establish a connection between the tumour and surrounding tissues.

If there is a suspicion of involvement of large vessels in the tumour process, angiography is used (contrast study of blood vessels), and if a bone is suspected of damage, a radioisotope scan of the bone system is performed.

If possible, puncture the tumour to determine the degree of maturity (malignancy) of the process.

Determination of the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) makes it possible to clarify the malignant nature of the teratoma, and also to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Get rid of teratoma: treatment methods

Treatment of teratomas in children is based on the degree of maturity (malignancy) of a tumour. With mature (benign) teratomas, the optimal type of treatment is a radical operation with removal of a tumour along with its capsule at the earliest possible time.

In children with immature (malignant) teratomas, combined (combined) treatment is used. Performing radical operations with immature teratomas is difficult due to the growth of a tumour and its local and distant spread (metastasis).

The radiotherapy method for immature teratomas is used as an adjunct to non-radical surgery. It should be noted that the sensitivity of malignant teratomas to radiation is insignificant.

In the case of incomplete removal of immature teratoma and the presence of metastases, vincristine, dactinomycin, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, vepezide, methotrexate or platinum preparations may be used. In some cases, the size of a tumour and metastases is reduced.

Survival in children with immature teratomas is much worse than in patients with mature tumours and largely depends on the radical nature of the surgical intervention (complete removal).

After the completion of the entire treatment program, children should be under constant supervision of oncologists. This is because, with incomplete (non-radical) removal of a tumour, a relapse (return) of the disease is possible. This is especially true for patients suffering from malignant teratomas, when, after incomplete removal or inadequate treatment, a tumour may recur in the area of its primary location or distant metastases.

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