Age-related macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration is the main reason for the gradual, painless bilateral deterioration of vision in the elderly. In most cases, with this disease under the retina in the area of the yellow spot (the retina are responsible for the central idea), certain substances are deposited, resulting in foci of detachment and atrophy of the pigment epithelium.
In this case, the function of photoreceptors is disrupted, and vision deteriorates. Patients complain of a sharp drop in vision, fog before the eyes, loss of sight. At present, there are no methods that can stop the development of age-related macular degeneration.
Special sets of vitamins are produced(A, C, E) and microelements (zinc, copper, selenium), but there is no evidence of their effectiveness. Another, more rare, form of age-related retinal degeneration is associated with the proliferation of vessels under the retina in the area of the macula.
These growths raise the retina, resulting in visual distortions and blurred vision. Laser coagulation is used to treat this form, but in many cases, the disease recurs.
Central serous choroidopathy develops mainly in men aged 20 to 50 years. With this disease under the retina, there is an accumulation of vascular effusion, which leads to the appearance of small foci of detachment of the retina, vision deteriorates.
If the process involves a yellow spot, there is a distortion of vision. In some cases, laser coagulation is useful for treatment.
Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus and is associated with the lesion of small vessels that feed the retina. In most cases, such complications can be avoided by adequately controlling the level of sugar in the blood. Also, the prevention of the development of diabetic retinal lesions is panretinal laser coagulation.
Hereditary retinal dystrophy can manifest from the first months of life or develop very slowly. Patients usually complain of worsening twilight vision, unpleasant sensations when looking at the light. There may be flashes before the eyes (photopsy). Sometimes objects can be seen as distorted (metamorphopsia). Patients may experience difficulty in moving along the stairs, especially in poor lighting, when crossing the street.
pigmentary Retinal Dystrophy
Pigmentary dystrophy is the collective name of a group of the most common hereditary dystrophies. In this type of dystrophy, uneven deposition of pigment occurs on the periphery of the retina. These deposits are sometimes called “bony bodies”. Both eyes are affected.
Over time, the number of “bony bodies” increases, the foci merge and spread along the retina and approach the centre of the fundus. The disease can begin in childhood, but sometimes the first signs appear only in the second half of life.
The first complaint of patients is a violation of twilight vision (night blindness). Patients are poorly oriented in the twilight and poor light. In the future, gradually narrowing the field of vision and reduced severity.
Vision gradually falls, and blindness comes to 40-60 years. Treatment of pigmentary dystrophy of the retina has not been developed. Appointed drugs that improve nutrition and blood supply to the retina, optic nerve. Courses twice a year. Treatment is usually not very effective.