If one nerve is affected, then this condition is called neuropathy. The defeat of the nerve root is radiculopathy. The failure of a large number of small nerves is polyneuropathy. The causes of the disease can be different. With neuropathy, there are violations of movement (weakness, lethargic muscles), sensitivity, pain.
Causes of Neuropathy
The main reasons for the development of neuropathy:
- Nerve compression. The most common condition is when a person “lain” or “sat out” an arm and leg. The compression of the nerve roots can occur with osteochondrosis of the spine and intervertebral hernias.
- Inflammation. It can develop as a result of bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, etc.
- Injury. Neuropathy is a complication of bruises, tears and complete rupture of nerves.
- Poisoning with alcohol and various toxic substances.
- Mixed neuropathies – this term refers to nerve damage that occurs as a result of a combination of different causes.
The main causes of polyneuropathy:
- Disease Guillain-Bar is neuropathy that develops as a result of the inflammatory process. This causes weakness in the muscles of the forearms and shins, pain and skin sensitivity disorders, which gradually rise. The disease is severe.
- Alcoholism. With alcoholic polyneuropathy, there are violations of movements and skin sensitivity by the type of “gloves” and “socks”. Later, the brain damage is joined, the intellect is broken. Alcoholic polyneuropathy is the result of direct toxic effects of ethyl alcohol on small nerves.
- It can effect on your brain and can cause of retinal dystrophySearch or use up and down arrow keys to select an itemRetinal dystrophy
- Diabetes. Diabetic polyneuropathy develops as a result of circulatory disorders in small vessels that nourish the nerves. First, the patient feels heat and numbness in the feet. He always feels that his feet are cold. Then the muscles of the shins gradually weaken, the gait becomes shaky, uncertain.
- Professional harm. Polyneuropathy often develops in workers who are in contact with hydrogen sulphide and manganese, whose feet and hands are subjected to vibration for a long time.
- Fungal diseases. Toxins of pathogenic fungi can affect small nerves. This manifests itself in the form of pain and swelling of the joints, a violation of their mobility.
- Serum sickness. This is an allergic reaction that develops, usually after the introduction of vaccines against rabies and tetanus. At the injection site, muscle paralysis develops. Subsequently, the movements are not restored.
- Diphtheria. This infectious disease has recently become a rarity but still occurs. The toxin of diphtheria bacillus spreads with blood flow and leads to nerve damage.
What can you do?
The main reasons for the development of neuropathies and polyneuropathies are very diverse: not all are listed above. To conduct effective treatment, it is necessary to establish a precise diagnosis. In some cases, violations due to neuropathy and polyneuropathy are reversible. In other cases, they persist for life. If there is pain, numbness and movement disorders in any part of the body, you need to contact a neurologist.
What can the doctors do?
Doctors can help you out in the treatment of this problem. Usually, the doctor can determine the cause of neuropathy and polyneuropathy, after questioning and examination of the patient. Often an electroneuromyography is prescribed – a study that helps evaluate the conduction of a nerve impulse in the nerves and muscles. Also, according to the indications, the doctor will appoint other types of studies.
Treatment depends on the disease, which led to the development of nerve damage. General principles of therapy of neuropathy and polyneuropathy: vitamins of group B, means for improving blood circulation, protecting nervous tissue from damage, improving nerve functions, adaptogens (agents that tone the body and increase protective forces).
Assign physiotherapy: electrophoresis, UHF, darsonval, galvanotherapy, etc. The prognosis depends on the initial disease, which led to the development of neuropathy and polyneuropathy.